until researcher Bryan Mark Rigg (a Jew!) recently uncovered
Hitler's Jewish Army
"Not every victim was a Jew but every Jew was a victim." -Elie Wiesel speaking of World War II. [Ron: This is the usual Jew victimiser's plaintiff cry. Strangely though, the real winners of WWI and WWII were the alleged Jew victims.]
"If there were Jews in (Hitler's) armed forces...who served knowing what was going on and made no attempt to save (lives), well then that is unacceptable and dishonorable."-Rabbi Marvin Hier, director of the Simon Wiesenthal Institute.[Ron: A bit of a piss weak" comment don'tcha think? The good Rabbi is not even prepared to enunciate the LIE that these 150,000 German soldiers of Jewish ancestry should have saved the mythical six million imaginary victims of the Holohoax.].
Thousands of men of Jewish descent and hundreds of what the Nazis called 'full Jews' served in the German military with Adolf Hitler's knowledge and approval.
Cambridge University researcher Bryan Rigg has traced the Jewish ancestry of more than 1,200 of Hitler's soldiers, including
Two field marshals, (God knows how many Jews they killed)
Fifteen generals, (God knows how many Jews they killed)
Two full generals, (God knows how many Jews they killed)
Eight lieutenant generals, (God knows how many Jews they killed)
Five major generals, "commanding up to 100,000 troops. (God only knows how many Jews they killed) "
[Ron: These comments are rather gratituous and unprofessional don'tcha think? this author provides NO EVIDENCE that any of these German soldiers killed any Jews. Perhaps its just a mantra at his local synagogue?]
In approximately 20 cases, Jewish soldiers in the Nazi army were awarded Germany's highest military honor, the Knight's Cross.
One of these Jewish veterans is today an 82 year old resident of northern Germany, an observant Jew who served as a captain and practiced his religion within the Wehrmacht throughout the war.
One of the Jewish field marshals was Erhard Milch, deputy to Luftwaffe Chief Hermann Goering. Rumors of Milch's Jewish identity circulated widely in Germany in the 1930s.
In one of the famous anecdotes of the time, Goering falsified Milch's birth record and when met with protests about having a Jew in the Nazi high command, Goering replied, ``I decide who is a Jew and who is an Aryan.''
DID THE JEWS IN HITLER'S ARMY CAUSE THE 'HOLOCAUST'?
Rigg's research also shed light on stories surrounding the rescue by German soldiers of the Lubavitcher grand rabbi of that time, who was in Warsaw when the war broke out in 1939.
Joseph Isaac Schneerson was spirited to safety after an appeal to Germany from the United States. Schneerson was assisted by a German officer Rigg has identified as the highly decorated Maj. Ernst Bloch, whose father was a Jew. [Ron: Sooo, WHY does Rigg keep sneering at these soldiers and suggesting they killed Jews?]
Jews also served in the Nazi police and security forces as ghetto police (Ordnungdienst) and concentration camp guards (kapos).
So what happens to the claim that Hitler sought to exterminate all Jews, when he allowed some of them to join in his struggle against Bolshevism and International finance capitalism?
"If the Jews were permitted to serve in Hitler's armed forces then there could not have been a Holocaust." [Ron: This statement is correct. there was NO Shoah (Holocaust) and the fact that the German army fielded 150,000 soldiers of Jewish ancestry proves it.]
During World War II thousands of Jews served in the Wehrmacht, many awarded the Cross for Bravery. Jews serving in the SS. Were they also in the Gestapo? As 'Gestapo' is an abbreviation of "Geheime Stadt Polizei", meaning State Secret Police,
William D. Montalbano, "The Jews in Hitler's Military," Los Angeles Times, Dec. 24, 1996.
Tom Tugend, "Grad student uncovers Jews who fought for Adolf Hitler," Jewish Telegraph Agency, Dec. 26, 1996.
Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators.
Hitler's Jewish Soldiers
The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military
Bryan Mark Rigg
Military service book of "half-Jew" Hermann Aub
Soldiers taking the oath of allegiance to Hitler
"Half-Jew" Horst Geitner was awarded both the Iron Cross Second Class and the Silver Wound Badge.
This photo of "half-Jew" Werner Goldberg, who was blond and blue-eyed, was used by a Nazi propaganda newspaper for its title page. Its caption: "The Ideal German Soldier."
"Half-Jew" Commander Paul Ascher, Admiral Lütjens's first staff officer on the battleship Bismarck; Ascher received Hitler's Deutschblütigkeitserklärung. (Military awards: EKI, EKII, and War Service Cross Second Class.)
"Quarter-Jew" Admiral Bernhard Rogge wearing the Ritterkreuz; he received Hitler's Deutschblütigkeitserklärung. (Military awards: oak leaves to Ritterkreuz, Ritterkreuz, samurai sword from the emperor of Japan, EKI, and EKII.)
"Half-Jew" Johannes Zukertort (last rank general) received Hitler's Deutschblütigkeitserklärung.
"Half-Jew" Colonel Walter H. Hollaender, decorated with the Ritterkreuz and German-Cross in Gold; he received Hitler's Deutschblütigkeitserklärung. (Military awards: Ritterkreuz, German-Cross in Gold, EKI, EKII, and Close Combat Badge.)
"Half-Jew" and later Luftwaffe General Helmut Wilberg; Hitler declared him Aryan in 1935. (Military awards: Hohenzollern's Knight's Cross with Swords, EKI, EKII.)
"Half-Jew" and field-marshal Erhard Milch (left) with General Wolfram von Richthofen. Hitler declared Milch Aryan. He was awarded the Ritterkreuz for his performance during the campaign in Norway in 1940.
General Gotthard Heinrici, who was married to a "half-Jew," meeting Hitler in 1937.
Contrary to conventional views, Rigg reveals that a startlingly large number of German military men were classified by the Nazis as Jews or "partial-Jews" (Mischlinge), in the wake of racial laws first enacted in the mid-1930s. Rigg demonstrates that the actual number was much higher than previously thought--perhaps as many as 150,000 men, including decorated veterans and high-ranking officers, even generals and admirals.
As Rigg fully documents for the first time, a great many of these men did not even consider themselves Jewish and had embraced the military as a way of life and as devoted patriots eager to serve a revived German nation.[Ron: In effect then, they were NOT Jews since Judaism (Talmudism) is A STATE OF MIND - a specificly anti-gentile ideology and the German people are gentiles.]. In turn, they had been embraced by the Wehrmacht, which prior to Hitler had given little thought to the "race" of these men but which was now forced to look deeply into the ancestry of its soldiers.
The process of investigation and removal, however, was marred by a highly inconsistent application of Nazi law. Numerous "exemptions" were made in order to allow a soldier to stay within the ranks or to spare a soldier's parent, spouse, or other relative from incarceration or far worse. (Hitler's own signature can be found on many of these "exemption" orders.) But as the war dragged on, Nazi politics came to trump military logic, even in the face of the Wehrmacht's growing manpower needs, closing legal loopholes and making it virtually impossible for these soldiers to escape the fate of millions of other victims of the Third Reich. [Ron: This is a throw-away propaganda line. WHAT "fate" is this author referring too? Jews were protected by being placed in Work Camps in the countryside well AWAY from the German cities where German civilians were bombed unmercifully by the Jew controllers of the British and US airforces notably Churchill, Eisenhower and Roosevelt.].
Based on a deep and wide-ranging research in archival and secondary sources, as well as extensive interviews with more than four hundred Mischlinge and their relatives, Rigg's study breaks truly new ground in a crowded field and shows from yet another angle the extremely flawed, dishonest, demeaning, and tragic essence of Hitler's rule.[Ron: This is vicious, self-serving and unsubstantiated Jew propaganda! Far from evidencing the alleged 'extremely flawed, dishonest, demeaning, and tragic essence of Hitler's rule' this research GIVES THE LIE TO THE JEW PROPAGANDA that alleges that Hitler and the German nation sought to genocide the Jewish population of German occupied Europe.].
Side and front photographs of "half-Jew" Anton Mayer, similar to those that often accompanied a Mischling's application for exemption.
Hitler's Jewish Soldiers
Clip of one-hour documentary and Israel TV interview with the director Larry Price. Full video available at Amazon.com
As featured on NBC-TV's Dateline (first aired Sunday, June 9, 2002)
WINNER OF THE 2003 COLBY AWARD William E. Colby Military Writers Symposium
As Many As 150,000 Jews Served In Hitler's Military
(Reuters) -- As many as 150,000 men of Jewish descent served in the German military under Adolf Hitler, some with the Nazi leader's explicit consent, according to a U.S. historian who has interviewed hundreds of former soldiers.
Bryan Mark Rigg, history professor at the American Military University in Virginia, told Reuters on Thursday that the issue of soldiers of partial Jewish descent was long a somewhat taboo subject, overlooked by most academics as it threw up thorny questions. [Ron: It does more than that. It gives the LIE to the Talmudists' claim that Hitler and the Gerrman nation sought to genocide all (or any) Jews.].
"Not everybody who wore a uniform was a Nazi and not every person of Jewish descent was persecuted," he said. "Where do they belong? They served in the military but lost mum at Auschwitz."[Ron: This statement is sheer smart arse Jew propaganda. WHY? Because 'Not everybody having Khazar, Sephardic or other Jew ancestry WAS A JEW and hence "at war" with and a traitor to, the German nation.' Moreover, if any German "Jewish" soldier lost a relative at Auschwitz such death would have been from disease or, at the end of the war, starvation due to Allied bombing of German transport lines. NOTE: Millions of German soldiers lost parents and relatives in the saturation fire-bombing of Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden, Cologne and virtually all other German cities, and many more died of disease or starvation deliberately inflicted upon German civilians by Churchill, Eisenhower and Roosevelt et al near the end of WWII and for years afterwards.].
According to the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, Jews or those of partial Jewish descent were unfit for military service, but Rigg tracked down and interviewed more than 400 former soldiers of partial Jewish descent -- labelled "Mischlinge" ("half-caste") by the Nazis.[Ron: Don't forget that World Jewry declared war on Germany in 1933 and sought to starve Germans by preventing them from trading with the rest of the world. Germany only produced one third of its food at that time and so it HAD to sell manufactured goods AND buy food outside its borders. It would therefore have been appropriate for the German government to have interned ALL Jews in camps as national security risks (as, for instance, the US did with Japanese Americans once it was at war with Japan) BUT Germany did not start to intern Jews until 1938.
He estimates there were about 60,000 soldiers with one Jewish parent and 90,000 with a Jewish grandparent in the Wehrmacht, the regular army as distinct from the Nazi SS.
"They thought 'if I serve well they're not going to hurt me and not going to hurt my family'," he said.
However, on returning home from the campaign in Poland at the start of the war to find persecution of their families worsening, many soldiers classified as half-Jewish started to complain, prompting Hitler to order their dismissal in 1940.
But many of these so-called half-Jewish soldiers continued to serve, sometimes due to delays in the discharge order reaching the front, because they concealed their background or because they applied and won clemency for good service.
Many senior officers with Jewish ancestry won special permission to serve from Hitler himself.
"History is not so black and white. History about Mischlinge shows how bankrupt the Nazi racial laws were," said Rigg.[Ron: This is more self-serving Jew propaganda! German laws regarding internment of Jews were necessary to protect national security because world Jewry had caused the German defeat in WWI, the devastating inflation in the 1922-23 and declared war on Germany in 1933. Compare being placed in a German Work camp like Auschwitz (with its 34 sub camps) swimmng pool, brothel, hospital with 20 doctors and 300 nurses etc, away from Allied bombing of German cities, with the lot of Japanese intenees in the desert in the US during WWII].
While Germany has long been aware of men serving as soldiers who Nazi race laws should have classified as Jewish, most notably former Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Luftwaffe Field Marshal Erhard Milch, Rigg's large estimate has surprised many.
Die Welt daily called Rigg's book "Hitler's Jewish Soldiers" "one of the most important Holocaust studies of recent years". The author was in Berlin to launch the German language version.
"The Mischlinge suffered the same fate in academic life as they did in real life. There was nobody to speak for them," Rigg said. "People thought it could be misinterpreted, it would be like saying: 'look they did it to themselves'." [Ron: What does this mean?!?].
Rigg, who has served in the U.S. Marines and as a volunteer in the Israeli army, was moved to research the subject after he discovered his own Jewish ancestry while probing his family tree and after a chance meeting with a Jewish Wehrmacht veteran.
Many of his subjects were telling their story for the first time and in some cases their families knew nothing of their Jewish heritage. "They would talk their hearts out, telling me all about this schizophrenic story they went through," he said.
He is convinced that most of the soldiers of Jewish decent were not aware of the Nazis' systematic murder of Jews, noting that most half-Jews reported to deportation stations in 1944.[Ron: THE REASON THEY WERE NOT AWARE OF THE ALLEGED "Nazis' systematic murder of Jews" WAS BECAUSE IT NEVER HAPPENED! Had Bryan Riggs reached that conclusions his book would not have sold well and in fact it would probably not have been published at all because the Jews control the publishing industry globally. And of course any hint of Holocaust denial would have led to dire consequences for the author's career as a s military historian an academic, and his welfare as well as that of his family.]
"Most say they do not feel guilty about serving in the military, they feel guilty about what they didn't do to save their relatives," he said.
PETER EPHROSS Jewish Telegraphic Agency
"Half-Jew" and field-marshal Erhard Milch, left, stands with Gen. Wolfam von Richthofen. Hitler declared Milch an Aryan.
Photo courtesy of University of Kansas
In the summer of 1992, Bryan Mark Rigg, then a student at Yale, was in Germany researching his family history when he attended a screening of "Europa, Europa."
Since his German wasn't so good, he asked an elderly man sitting next to him to translate the film, which tells the story of Shlomo Perel, a Jew who survived the Holocaust by falsifying his identity - and who served in the German army for part of World War II.
After the movie, the man told Rigg that his story was similar to Perel's. Over a drink, the man told Rigg about his experiences as a "quarter-Jew" who had served for Germany on the Russian front.
The conversation fascinated Rigg and spurred him to investigate whether there were more soldiers of Jewish descent in the Nazi army.
He began checking - and sure enough, there were.
What's more, little scholarly work had been done on these mischlinge, as the Nazis called Germans with Jewish roots.
"They suffered the same fate in academic life that they did in the Third Reich. Nobody wanted them. Nobody claimed them. So nobody knows about them," Rigg, 31, told JTA recently.
The encounter launched a 10-year odyssey for Rigg that culminated in "Hitler's Jewish Soldiers," which is making waves in both the media and academia.
The Chronicle of Higher Education printed a lengthy article on Rigg and his book, and he appeared on a segment on NBC's "Dateline" last month, titled "Hiding in Plain Sight."
In the book, Rigg tells the strange-but-true story of these wartime German soldiers with Jewish roots.
Based on interviews with more than 400 of these former soldiers, along with some statistical extrapolation, Rigg concluded that more than 100,000 such soldiers - who were considered Jewish, according to Nazi racial laws - served in the German military.[Ron; Elsewhere this number is said to be 150,000].
Many researchers [Ron: Who? And on what basis?] consider this number an exaggeration and dismiss Rigg, who teaches at the online American Military University, as publicity-hungry.[Ron: This is the usual denigratory rhetoric used by Jews and their fellow travellers to demean and dismiss valid criticism snce they cannot provide valid, rational refutation.]
"This is not a bombshell," Raul Hilberg, one of the deans of Holocaust scholarship, recently told The Chronicle of Higher Education. "We have known that there were thousands" of men with Jewish roots "in the German army." [Ron: Really? Sooo, doesn't that destroy the credibility of the Jew's Holohoax propaganda?!]
Some also have taken aim at the book's title. After all, Rigg himself says that only 60 percent of the "half-Jews" and only 30 percent of the "quarter-Jews" who served as soldiers were Jewish according to Jewish law.[Ron: Never mind 'Jewish law". Being a 'Jew" is NOT a matter of parentage, it is a matter of individual decision. Being a "Jew" is a choice to accept the Talmudic and Torah ideology or to publicly profess that ideology whether one believes it or not. One is only a "Jew" if one agrees with or publicly professes Talmudic and/or Torah ideology.]
Many didn't even know they were Jewish because their families had assimilated.[Ron: Well then they are NOT Jews!]
But many scholars support Rigg in his contention that his book, based on his doctoral dissertation at Cambridge University in England, casts new light on Nazi policy and the Holocaust.
Rigg's "diligent" and "sustained" research calls into question some previous assumptions about Nazi policy during the Holocaust, Holocaust scholar Michael Berenbaum told JTA. Rigg's book "shows that there was a greater degree of flexibility in the anti-Jewish policy than previously realized,"[Ron: Indeed it gives the LIE to the whole Holohoax charade!] says Berenbaum, author of "The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust."
Berenbaum highlights the importance of Rigg's evidence showing that, as late as 1943, Hitler was spending his time pondering the fate of individual soldiers with Jewish roots.[Ron: after all the real question in wartime is; is any given individual loyal to the nation or a traitor.].
While the German war machine was focused on battling allied forces, Hitler was "deciding whether this guy's face is Jewish. It's unbelievable," Berenbaum says.[Ron: No it isn't. That is just the propaganda spin the Jews put on these matters.].
Rigg admits that it's a bit unbelievable that he became a Holocaust scholar.[Ron: WHY does this book make Riggs a Holocaust scholar? It's about German soldiers at war isn't it?]
"Ten years ago, if you had asked me that this was going to happen, that we'd be sitting here talking about this, I'd be like, 'No way.' "
Tall, fit and square-jawed - and prone to use the words "honored" and "gentlemanly" in conversation - Rigg looks more like a former football player and Marine from Texas - which, in fact, he is.
As a teen-ager, Rigg attended the Fort Worth Christian Academy and spent time on Protestant missions.
While researching his family history that summer in 1992, Rigg found some records indicating that many of his mother's ancestors were Jewish.
"I have some ancestors who were running around in skirts in Northern Scotland hacking up each other. That's part of my tradition as well. I also have some tradition going to the Temple Mount," he says.
But it wasn't just his Christian upbringing that made him an unlikely candidate for research into the Holocaust. Throughout his research, he spoke to many scholars who dissuaded him from his work.[Ron: That's hardly a surprise is it?]
He was told that the subject matter was either too tangential or would cause problems for Jews,[Ron: You Betcha!] Rigg recalls, but he turned the criticism into a challenge.
It wasn't his first academic obstacle: As a young child, he failed first grade twice. Only when he was placed into a university-affiliated school did he begin to flourish.
After high school, he was rejected from the Ivy League schools he had dreamed of attending. So he spent a fifth year of high school studying and playing football at an East Coast private school, and then was accepted at Yale.
Even today, Rigg appears to be motivated by the discouragement he says he received from some scholars.
At a lecture last month at the Leo Baeck Institute in New York, Rigg says some scholars "exuded an air of academic arrogance that irritated me." In an interview with JTA, he discussed his time spent in "the bowels of the academic establishment."
Armed with this motivation, as well as some encouragement from his family and from scholars such as Jonathan Steinberg, his doctoral adviser at Cambridge, Rigg persevered.
After spending time with some of the soldiers, Rigg felt he owed something to them - and to what he calls truth, which he uses without an ounce of irony.
Rigg himself contributed to "personal truth" - "outing" [?!?] some of these soldiers' Jewish roots to their own families.
Some of the soldiers Rigg learned about became interested in their Judaism after the war, but others died without telling anyone - and Rigg was the one to inform their families.
Even if many of his subjects didn't consider themselves Jewish, their experiences during the war highlight a gray spot in the world of the Holocaust, Rigg says.[Ron: You Betcha!]
"Are they perpetrators or are they victims? Do they share the guilt or do they share the victimhood?" he asks. "They're between two stools all the time."
[Ron: What endless bullshit these Jews go on with?!Are Jews perpetrators or victims? Seriously? "Do they share the guilt? WHAT GUILT? THIS AUTHOR HASN'T DEMONSTRATED ANY REASON FOR GUILT! "... or do they share the victimhood"? Well, prima facie these German soldiers along with all other German people, have been blamed for the totally mythical Holocaust LIE for 65 years, so they can certainly be considered "victims" of the Rothschild and Rockefeller Talmudic Holohoax scam and scapegoating propaganda.].
So is Rigg, in many ways. Raised a fundamentalist Protestant, he studied at the Ohr Sameach Yeshiva in Jerusalem while conducting his research, and says he now professes that he believes in no specific religion beyond general "tolerance." [Ron: But he has no qualms about propagating the Holocaust LIE for personal profit, to the detriment of the German nation and humanity.].
His time at a yeshiva was just one of the turns Rigg's life has taken during the last decade. He also spent time in a program the Israeli Army runs for volunteers from abroad, and even did a stint in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1999 to 2001.
But, he says, he made a commitment to his subjects to tell their story. He has done that both through his book and through an archive in the German city of Freiburg that he has filled with the fruits of his research.
Hitler's Jewish Soldiers - Perhaps 150,000 Jews Fought Valiantly
The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military
By Bryan Mark Rigg 2-17-02
May 2002 496 pages,
6 x 9 Modern War Studies Cloth ISBN 0-7006-1178-9, $29.95
To be featured on NBC-TV's Dateline in June 2002
On the murderous road to "racial purity" Hitler encountered unexpected detours, largely due to his own crazed views and inconsistent policies regarding Jewish identity. [Ron: This is the usual Jew propaganda which Bryan Riggs' research has blown to bits regardless of the "spin" the Talmudists use to conceal the truth.] After centuries of Jewish assimilation and intermarriage in German society, he discovered that eliminating Jews from the rest of the population was more difficult than he'd anticipated. As Bryan Mark Rigg shows in this provocative new study, nowhere was that heinous process more fraught with contradiction and confusion than in the German military. Contrary to conventional views, Rigg reveals that a startlingly large number of German military men were classified by the Nazis as Jews or "partial-Jews" (Mischlinge), in the wake of racial laws first enacted in the mid-1930s. Rigg demonstrates that the actual number was much higher than previously thought--perhaps as many as 150,000 men, including decorated veterans and high-ranking officers, even generals and admirals.
As Rigg fully documents for the first time, a great many of these men did not even consider themselves Jewish and had embraced the military as a way of life and as devoted patriots eager to serve a revived German nation.[Ron: Exactly so!] In turn, they had been embraced by the Wehrmacht, which prior to Hitler had given little thought to the "race" of these men but which was now forced to look deeply into the ancestry of its soldiers. [Ron: As World Jewry had declared war on Germany WHAT OTHER OPTION DID THE GERMAN NATION HAVE but to examine the likely loyalty of its soldiers!!!] The process of investigation and removal, however, was marred by a highly inconsistent application of Nazi law. Numerous "exemptions" were made in order to allow a soldier to stay within the ranks [Ron: If a soldier was considered to be loyal to the German nation why shouldn't s/he be allowed to remain in the military?] or to spare a soldier's parent, spouse, or other relative from incarceration or far worse. (Hitler's own signature can be found on many of these "exemption" orders.) But as the war dragged on, Nazi politics came to trump military logic, even in the face of the Wehrmacht's growing manpower needs, closing legal loopholes and making it virtually impossible for these soldiers to escape the fate of millions of other victims of the Third Reich. Based on a deep and wide-ranging research in archival and secondary sources, as well as extensive interviews with more than four hundred Mischlinge and their relatives, Rigg's study breaks truly new ground in a crowded field and shows from yet another angle the extremely flawed, dishonest, demeaning, and tragic essence of Hitler's rule.
Side and front photographs of "half-Jew" Anton Mayer, similar to those that often accompanied a Mischling's application for exemption. To see more photographs from the book, click here "Through videotaped interviews, painstaking attention to personnel files, and banal documents not normally consulted by historians, and spurred by a keen sense of personal mission, Rigg has turned up an unexplored and confounding chapter in the history of the Holocaust. [Ron: Indeed he has.]
The extent of his findings has surprised scholars."--Warren Hoge, New York Times "The revelation that Germans of Jewish blood, knowing the Nazi regime for what it was, served Hitler as uniformed members of his armed forces must come as a profound shock. It will surprise even professional historians of the Nazi years." --John Keegan, author of The Face of Battle and The Second World War "Startling and unexpected, Rigg's study conclusively demonstrates the degree of flexibility in German policy toward the Mischlinge, the extent of Hitler's involvement, and, most importantly, that not all who served in the armed forces were anti-Semitic,even as their service aided the killing process." [Ron:God forgive this man. His false testimony condemns him.] --Michael Berenbaum, author of The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust "Rigg's extensive knowledge and the preliminary conclusions drawn from his research impressed me greatly. I firmly believe that his in-depth treatment of the subject of German soldiers of Jewish descent in the Wehrmacht will lead to new perspectives on this portion of 20th century German military history."--Helmut Schmidt, Former Chancellor of Germany "An impressively researched work with important implications for hotly debated questions. Rigg tells some exquisitely poignant stories of individual human experiences that complicate our picture of state and society in the Third Reich."--Nathan A. Stoltzfus, Florida State University, author of Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany "An impressive work filled with interesting stories. . . .
By helping us better understand Nazi racial policy at the margins--i.e., its impact on certain members of the German military--Rigg's study clarifies the central problems of Nazi Jewish policies overall."--Norman Naimark, Stanford University, author of Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe "An illuminating and provocative study that merits a wide readership and is sure to be much discussed."--Dennis E. Showalter, Colorado College, author of Tannenberg: Clash of Empires "An outstanding job of research and analysis. Rigg's book will add a great deal to our understanding of the German military, of the place of Jews and people of Jewish descent in the Nazi state, and of the Holocaust. It forces us to deal with the full, complex range of possible actions and reactions by individuals caught up in the Nazi system."--Geoffrey P. Megargee, author of Inside Hitler's High Command "With the skill of a master detective, Bryan Rigg reveals the surprising and largely unknown story of Germans of Jewish origins in the Nazi military. His work contributes to our understanding of the complexity of faith and identity in the Third Reich."--Paula E. Hyman, Yale University, author of Gender and Assimilation in Modern Jewish History and The Jews of Modern France "A major piece of scholarship which traces the peculiar twists and turns of Nazi racial policy toward men in the Wehrmacht, often in the highest ranks, who had partly Jewish backgrounds. Rigg has uncovered personal stories and private archives which literally nobody knew existed.
His book will be an important contribution to German history."--Jonathan Steinberg, University of Pennsylvania, author of All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-1943 "An original, groundbreaking, and significant contribution to the history of the Wehrmacht and Nazi Germany."--James S. Corum, School of Advanced Air Power Studies, author of The Roots of Blitzkrieg and The Luftwaffe "Rigg's work has discovered new academic territory."--Manfred Messerschmidt, Freiburg University, author of Die Wehrmacht im NS-Staat (The Wehrmacht in the Nazi State) BRYAN MARK RIGG received his B.A. with honors in history from Yale University in 1996. Yale awarded him the Henry Fellowship for graduate study at Cambridge University, where he received his M.A. in 1997 and Ph.D. in 2002. Currently Professor of History at American Military University, he has served as a volunteer in the Israeli Army and as an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps. His research for this book has been featured in the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and London Daily Telegraph. The thousands of pages of documents and oral testimonies (8mm and VHS video) the author collected for this study have been purchased by the National Military Archive of Germany. The Bryan Mark Rigg Collection is housed in the Bundesarchiv-Militrarchiv in Freiburg, Germany. Click here to learn more about the author and his research experiences.
החיילים היהודים של היטלר, מאת בריאן מארק ריג, תירגם מאנגלית עמית יריב, הוצאת מטר, 2005, 455 עמודים
ייאמר מיד: כותרת הספר מטעה. אין מדובר בספר ביהודים אלא בבני תערובת, או כפי שהוגדרו על ידי הנאצים וחוקי נירנברג "מישלינג", כלומר: יהודים למחצה, יהודים לרביע ולשמינית וכיוצא בזה. רוב החיילים ממוצא יהודי בדרגה כלשהי ששירתו בוורמאכט לא היו שייכים לקהילה היהודית, לא ראו עצמם יהודים, על פי רוב לא היו יהודים מצד ההלכה היהודית ואפילו היו חברי מפלגה ואנטישמים. אלא שזרם בעורקיהם, במידה רבה יותר או פחות, דם יהודי.
זאת ועוד, מדובר בספר הזה בהיסטוריה המתבססת בעיקר על ראיונות. המחבר, בריאן מארק ריג, שגילה כי אחת מסבותיו היתה יהודייה ובעקבות הגילוי בא ללמוד בישיבת "אור שמח", ריאיין כ-400 איש לצורך כתיבת ספרו. הספר היה במקורו עבודת דוקטור, אבל לדעת חוקרים, המספרים שהוא מביא מפוקפקים. ריג טוען כי בוורמאכט שירתו כ-150 אלף חיילים שבעורקיהם זרם דם יהודי. אכן, מדהים להיווכח כי פלדמרשל בחיל האוויר, ארהרד מילך, היה יהודי למחצה, כמו גם הלמוט וילברג, אבי שיטת ה"בליץ קריג".
אבל רוב בני התערובת, וביניהם רבים שקיבלו מן הפיהרר תעודות על היותם "ארים", שוחררו מן הצבא למגינת לבם בשלב זה או אחר של המלחמה. כזה הוא המקרה המעניין של הקולונל עטור אותות ההצטיינות, ארנסט בלוך, יהודי-למחצה, שבפקודתו ובשירותו של האדמירל קנריס, קצין המודיעין הראשי (ריג כתב על הפרשה המוזרה הזאת את ספרו החדש, שעדיין לא תורגם לעברית), מילט את הרבי מלובביץ', הרב יוסף שניאורסון, מוורשה הכבושה, הביאו ללטוויה, ושם העלה אותו על ספינה לשטוקהולם, שממנה הפליג לאמריקה. לטענת ריג נעשה הדבר באמצעות לחץ אמריקאי על קנריס, שהיה פטריוט גדול, אבל את היטלר לא חיבב. ובכן, ארנסט בלוך זה שוחרר מן הצבא ב-27 באוקטובר 1944, אף שתואר כ"נציונל סוציאליסט חיובי". "בלוך היה המום, משום שידע כי היטלר עצמו הכריז עליו בעל דם גרמני" (עמ' 263).
החיילים בעלי דם יהודי שגורשו מן הצבא ראו בכך עלבון והשפלה. במקרים מסוימים בכו מפקדיהם בלכתם, מספר ריג. אבל גם אלה שלא גורשו היו די מבולבלים. על כך כתב לווטנט אייק שווייצר, יהודי למחצה שקיבל את הפטור מחוקי הגזע בינואר 1942, לדודתו: "אני רואה שהוניתי את עצמי. במקום להבהיר את הדברים, להפוך אותם פשוטים יותר, חוויותי רק מסבכות את המצב... מצבי בלתי אפשרי כל כך ותלוי כל הזמן באוויר, עד שתיאוריו יישמעו הזויים. מעמדי כחייל הוא פרדוקס של ממש, ואינו מאפשר שום הסבר הגיוני... זה מצב נורא... איני חושש מן האמת, אבל ברגע שאתחיל, איאלץ לספר הכל. הפכתי אדם בודד. רבים מחברי הטובים מתו. הלוואי שהכל ייגמר בקרוב". משפחתו של שווייצר נרדפה ואביו כבר היגר לארצות הברית. הוא עצמו נהרג בקרב ב-1945.
מכתבו של שווייצר נותן ביטוי מסוים למה שחשתי בקריאת ספרו של ריג. קראתי אותו כמו שקוראים ספר מתח ולא מחקר היסטורי, ותוך כדי הקריאה חשתי כמו בבית משוגעים. התחושה היתה שאין היגיון בדבר: היטלר נותן פטור לזה ולאחר לא, ולא מובן מדוע הוא חותם על תעודה הבאה להעיד על דם ארי, ובסופו של דבר היא אינה מספקת. הסיפור שריג מספר הוא סיפור מעניין ומטורף, אך אין בו כדי לשפוך אור על ההיסטוריה של הרייך השלישי. אם הכל כה מטורף, הרי זה פוטר את האנשים מלשאת באחריות, ועל כן הספר מעורר זעם. שאלתי את עצמי מדוע נכתב. מה כל כך משך את ריג לעשות את המחקר שעשה ומה תורם המחקר הזה ולמי.
אם אפשר ללמוד משהו מהספר, הרי זה שרוב בני האדם הם מוגי לב, ושיצר החיים רב עוצמה מכל יצר אחר ומכריע כל דילמה מוסרית, אפילו כשמביאים בחשבון שחלק מן החיילים שמדובר בהם חשבו שיוכלו להציל את משפחותיהם אם ישרתו את המדינה. אבל גם כאן לא היתה שום חוקיות. היו שהצליחו בכך ואחרים נכשלו לרוב.
מה שמעורר את הרושם של הטירוף הוא תיאור ההתעסקות האינסופית של היטלר בבעיית המישלינג. כל שאלה בדבר כשרותו של חייל היתה צריכה להיות מוכרעת על ידיו. הוא דרש לעיין באופן אישי בכל מקרה כזה ולתת את ההוראה בדבר תעודת הכשרות ולחתום עליה. התיאור של ריג מעלה כמובן שאלות שונות. אחת מהן היא השאלה אם תיאור זה מהימן. "עיסוקו של היטלר בגזע... נגע לא רק ל'מישלינג', אלא גם למי שהיו נשואים ל'מישלינג'" (עמ' 190). כמו, למשל, במקרה של גנרל גוטהרד היינריצי, שאשתו היתה יהודייה למחצה ולפיכך נזקקו ילדיו לתעודות על דם גרמני. "שלושתם (האשה ושני הילדים) צולמו מכל זווית אפשרית כדי להוכיח שהם לא נראים יהודים". היינריצי היה חריג למדי, כי סיים את המלחמה בדרגת מפקד צבא היבשה וניהל את הקרב האחרון על האודר ואת הגנת ברלין.
רק בינואר 1945 פירסם הוורמאכט פקודה שיש להימנע מהעסקת קצינים "מישלינג יהודים", גם כאלה שקיבלו אישורים מיוחדים, בתפקידי מפתח ומקידומם לדרגת קולונל. מתברר ששחרורם מן הצבא של חיילים בעמדות מפתח כמו גנרלים, למשל, השפיע לרעה על המוראל, ועל כן יצאה הפקודה הנ"ל כה מאוחר.
השאלה המעניינת היא, אם חצאי יהודים או יהודים לרביע לקחו חלק בהשמדת היהודים, או האם ידעו על מעשי הזוועה ועל מחנות ההשמדה. לטענת ריג הם ידעו על הרדיפות, כמובן, אך לא ידעו על ההשמדה ההמונית. הטענה הזאת אינה משכנעת באמת. עוד פגם בולט בספר הוא הניסיון לטפול את העסקתם (הזמנית) של מישלינג בוורמאכט ואת התעסקותו האינסופית של היטלר בענייניהם, על מוצאו היהודי כביכול של היטלר, במקום לשקול שמא נעשה הדבר כדי למנוע אי-נחת ואי-שקט בשורות הצבא, כפי שמוכיח מקרה הנשים הגרמניות מברלין, שיצאו להפגנה מדי יום ביומו מול בית הסוהר שאליו נלקחו בעליהן היהודים והצליחו בסופו של דבר להביא לשחרורם, מכיוון שהשלטונות חששו ממרי אזרחי.
The similarities between Hitler and Bush in points of genealogy and actions should strike anyone with half a brain left as a big red WARNING SIGN.
The ignorant are bound to repeat their misery. Ignorance is curse, evil, and blessing at ones; curse because, as said before, the ignorant are bound to repeat their misery, evil because ignorance is the cause of most evil, blessing because the ignorant are mostly unaware of what they are doing and thus free from feeling guilt or remorse - a trait Sociopaths share.
As long as people don't learn from history, we are collectively bound to repeat the misery.