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Political Information Last Updated: Mar 28, 2022 - 12:08:15 PM

The Leading Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution
By Jewish Encyclopedia
Jan 18, 2010 - 11:02:00 AM

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The Leading Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution
Jewish encyclopedias

Jewish Encyclopedia

Karl Marx, the founder of the communism, was a Jew. And as Jewish Encyclopedia describes, Jews have been prominent in the modern socialist movement, and the teachings of Marx had a ”Talmudic Bent”:

”Jews have been prominently identified with the modern Socialist movement from its very inception.
The spread of the socialistic faith among the German colony at Paris was therefore bound to convert Jew and Gentile alike. Two of those early Jewish converts, Karl Marx and Ferdinand Lassalle, were to become commanding figures in the history of socialism: one as the father of scientific socialism, the other as the founder of the German Socialist party. Marx, the son of a Jewish lawyer of Treves, numbered among his ancestors many famous rabbis. The chapters on the theory of value in his principal work, "Das Kapital," suggest by their subtle analysis an inherited Talmudical bent, though his own education was uninfluenced by Jewish studies, the family having been converted to the Lutheran Church during his early childhood.
While in Germany socialism has attracted individual Jews, in Russia it has become a movement of the Jewish masses. ”
(Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, article: 'Socialism', p. 418-419.)

Encyclopedia Judaica

”The Communist movement and ideology played an important part in Jewish life, particularly in the 1920s, 1930s and during and after World War II. [...] Individual Jews played an important role in the early stages of Bolshevism and the Soviet Regime. [...] The great attraction of Communism among Russian, and later also, Western Jewry, emerged only with the establishment of the Soviet Regime in Russia. […] Many Jews the world over therefore regarded the Soviet concept of the solution to the “Jewish question” as an intrinsically positive approach. [...] Communism became widespread in virtually all Jewish communities. In some countries Jews became the leading element in the legal and illegal Communist parties and in some cases were even instructed by the Communist International to change their Jewish-sounding names and pose as non-Jews, in order not to confirm right wing propaganda that presented Communism an alien, Jewish conspiracy.”
(Encyclopedia Judaica, p.791-792.)





On page 794 of the Encyclopedia Judaica, this Jewish reference book then goes to list the Jews prominent in the upper command of the Russian Communist party: these included Maxim *Litvinov (Wallasch), M. Liadov (Mandelshtam), Grigori Shklovsky, A. Stolz, S. Gusev (Drabkin), Grigori *Zinoniev (Radomyslsky), Lev *Kamenev, (Rosenfeld), Rozaliya *Zemliachka (Zulkind), Helena Rozmirovich, Yemeli *Yaroslavsky (Gubelman), Serafima Gopner, G. Sokolnikov, L. *Plutnitsky, Jacob *Sverdlov, M. Vladimirov, P. Zalutsky, A. Lozovsky, Y. Yaklovlev (Epstein), Lazar *Kaganovich D. Shvartsman, and Simon *Dimanstein. [...] *Trotsky, M. Uritsky, M. Volodarsky, J. Steklov, Adolf Joffe, David Riazanov (Goldendach), Yuri *Larin, and Karl *Radek (Sobelsohn).
(Below: page 794 of the Encyclopedia Judaica).


The organizer of the Revolution was Trotsky, who prepared a special committee to plan and prepare the coup which brought the Communists to power. according tot he Encyclopedia Judaica, this committee, called the Military Revolutionary Committee,, had five members - three of whom were Jews. (below)


The Politburo - the supreme governing body of Russia immediately after the Communist Revolution - had four Jews amongst its seven members, according to page 797 of the Jewish Encyclopedia Judaica (below).


Intelligence reports

”The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a world-wide social revolution.” — David Francis, American Ambassador
to Russia at the time of the Revolution
(Francis, D. R. (1921). Russia From the American Embassy. New York: C. Scribner’s & Sons. p.214.)

British government report bluntly states that Jews control international Communism:
There is now definite evidence that Bolshevism is an international
movement controlled by Jews.

(National Archives, Dept. of State Decimal File, 1910-1929, file 861.00/5067)

US Consul General Summers and US Consul Caldwell, had this to say:
Jews prominent in a local Soviet government, anti-Jewish feeling growing [...]”
(State Department document 861.00/1757; sent on 2 May 1918, from Moscow by US Consul General Summers.)

The first report, sent from Omsk on 1 March 1919, contains the following paragraph:
Fifty per cent of Soviet Government in each town consists of Jews of the worst type...
(State Department document 861.00/2205; sent from Vladivostok on 5 July 1918, by US Consul Caldwell.)

”[...] it is probably unwise to say this loudly in the United States but the Bolshevik movement is and has been since its beginning, guided and controlled by Russian Jews of the greasiest type...

The second report, dated 9 June 1919, and sent from Vladivostok, said that in 1918 of the:
”384 commissars there were 2 Negroes, 13 Russians, 15 Chinamen, 22 Armenians and more than 300 Jews. Of the latter number 264 had come to Russia from the United States since the downfall of the Imperial Government.”
(State Department document 861.00/2205)

Both documents from: U.S. National Archives. (1919). Record Group 120: Records of the American Expeditionary Forces, June 9.

Robert Wilton, a correspondant of the London Times, reveals the Jewish role in the Bolshevik Revolution

A striking feature of Mr. Wilton's examination of the tumultuous 1917-1919 period in Russia is his frank treatment of the critically important Jewish role in establishing the Bolshevik regime.

The following lists of persons in the Bolshevik Party and Soviet administration during this period, which Wilton compiled on the basis of official reports and original documents, underscore the crucial Jewish role in these bodies. These lists first appeared in the rare French edition of Wilton's book, published in Paris in 1921 under the title Les Derniers Jours des Romanoffs. They did not appear in either the American or British editions of The Last Days of the Romanors published in 1920.

"I have done all in my power to act as an impartial chronicler," Wilton wrote in his foreword to Les Derniers Jours des Romanoffs. "In order not to leave myself open to any accusation of prejudice, I am giving the list of the members of the [Bolshevik Party' s] Central Committee, of the Extraordinary Commission [Cheka or secret police], and of the Council of Commissars functioning at the time of the assassination of the Imperial family.

"The 62 members of the [Central] Committee were composed of five Russians, one Ukrainian, six Letts [Latvians], two Germans, one Czech, two Armenians, three Georgians, one Karaim [Karaite] (a Jewish sect), and 41 Jews.

"The Extraordinary Commission [Cheka or Vecheka] of Moscow was composed of 36 members, including one German, one Pole, one Armenian, two Russians, eight Latvians, and 23 Jews.

"The Council of the People's Commissars [the Soviet .government] numbered two Armenians, three Russians, and 17 Jews.

"Ac.cording to data furnished by the Soviet press, out of 556 important functionaries of the Bolshevik state, including the above-mentioned, in 1918-1919 there were: 17 Russians, two Ukrainians, eleven Armenians, 35 Letts [Latvians], 15 Germans, one Hungarian, ten Georgians, three Poles, three Finns, one Czech, one Karaim, and 457 Jews."

"If the reader is astonished to find the Jewish hand everywhere in the affair of the assassination of the Russian Imperial family, he must bear in mind the formidable numerical preponderance of Jews in the Soviet administration," Wilton went on to write.

Effective governmental power, Wilton continued (on pages 136-138 of the same edition) is in the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party. In 1918, he reported, this body had twelve members, of whom nine were of Jewish origin, and three were of Russian ancestry. The nine Jews were: Bronstein (Trotsky), Apfelbaum (Zinoviev), Lurie (Larine), Uritsky, Volodarski, Rosenfeld (Kamenev), Smidovich, Sverdlov (Yankel), and Nakhamkes (Steklov). The three Russians were: Ulyanov (Lenin), Krylenko, and Lunacharsky.

"The other Russian Socialist parties are similar in composition," Wilton went on. "Their Central Committees are made up as follows:"

Mensheviks (Social Democrats): Eleven members, all of whom are Jewish.

Communists of the People: Six members, of whom five are Jews and one is a Russian.

Social Revolutionaries (Right Wing): Fifteen members, of whom 13 are Jews and two are Russians (Kerenski, who may be of Jewish origin, and Tchaikovski).

Social Revolutionaries (Left Wing): Twelve members, of whom ten are Jews and two are Russians.

Committee of the Anarchists of Moscow: Five members, of whom four are Jews and one is a Russian.

Polish Communist Party: Twelve members, all of whom are Jews, including Sobelson (Radek), Krokhenal (Zagonski), and Schwartz (Goltz).

"These parties," commented Wilton, "in appearance opposed to the Bolsheviks, play the Bolsheviks' game on the sly, more or less, by preventing the Russians from pulling themselves together. Out of 61 individuals at the head of these parties, there are six Russians and 55 Jews. No matter what may be the name adopted, a revolutionary government will be Jewish."

[Although the Bolsheviks permitted these leftist political groups to operate for a time under close supervision and narrow limits, even these pitiful remnants of organized opposition were thoroughly eliminated by the end of the 1921 .]

The Soviet government, or "Council of People's Commissars' (also known as the "Sovnarkom") : Wilton reported that out of these 22 "Sovnarkom" members, there were three Russians, one Georgian, one Armenian, and 17 Jews.

The Central Executive Committee:
Out of 61 members, five were Russians, six were Latvians, one was a German, two were Armenians, one was a Czech, one was an Imeretian, two were Georgians, one was a Karaim, one. was a Ukrainian, and 41 were Jews.

The Extraordinary Commission of Moscow (Cheka) 'the Soviet secret police and predecessor of the GPU, the NKVD and the KGB:
Of these 36 Cheka officials, one was a Pole, one a German, one an Armenian, two were Russians, eight were Latvians, and 23 were Jews.

"Accordingly," Wilton sums up, "there is no reason to be surprised at the preponderant role of Jews in the assassination of the Imperial family. It is rather the opposite that would have been surprising."
see the tables especially.

Winston Churchill exposed the Jews leading role in the Bolshevik Revolution:

International Jews
In violent opposition to all this sphere of Jewish effort rise the schemes of the International Jews. The adherents of this sinister confederacy are mostly men reared up among the unhappy populations of countries where Jews are persecuted on account of their race. Most, if not all, of them have forsaken the faith of their forefathers, and divorced from their minds all spiritual hopes of the next world. This movement among the Jews is not new. From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing. It played, as a modern writer, Mrs. Webster, has so ably shown, a definitely recognizable part in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the Nineteenth Century; and now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.
Terrorist Jews
There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution, by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews, it is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews. Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewish leaders. Thus Tchitcherin, a pure Russian, is eclipsed by his nominal subordinate Litvinoff, and the influence of Russians like Bukharin or Lunacharski cannot be compared with the power of Trotsky, or of Zinovieff, the Dictator of the Red Citadel (Petrograd) or of Krassin or Radek -- all Jews. In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews is even more astonishing. And the prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary Commissions for Combating Counter-Revolution has been taken by Jews, and in some notable cases by Jewesses. The same evil prominence was obtained by Jews in the brief period of terror during which Bela Kun ruled in Hungary. The same phenomenon has been presented in Germany (especially in Bavaria), so far as this madness has been allowed to prey upon the temporary prostration of the German people. Although in all these countries there are many non-Jews every whit as bad as the worst of the Jewish revolutionaries, the part played by the latter in proportion to their numbers in the population is astonishing.

The Funding for the Revolution

There had been a running feud between the Russians and the Jews for centuries and from these conflicts arose “pogroms” to suppress the Jews. This war without borders can be illustrated by the Jewish reaction in the 1880s to the anti-Semitic Russian May Laws. The May Laws of 1882 attempted to restrict Jews from some professions and mandate resettlement of most Jews to their original area of the empire, the Pale of Settlement (a huge area, originally set up in 1772, encompassing an area about half the size of Western Europe, extending from the Crimea to the Baltic Sea, to which the Jews had been restricted).

In retaliation, Jewish international financiers did their best to destroy the Russian economy. Encyclopaedia Britannica describes what happened:
The Russian May Laws were the most conspicuous legislative monument achieved by modern Anti-Semitism.... Their immediate result was a ruinous commercial depression which was felt all over the empire and which profoundly affected the national credit. The Russian minister was at his wits end for money. Negotiations for a large loan were entered upon with the house of Rothschild and a preliminary contract was signed, when...the finance minister was informed that unless the persecutions of the Jews were stopped the great banking house would be compelled to withdraw from the operation....
(Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1947). Vol. 2. p.76.)

In response to the economic and other pressures put upon Russia, the Czar issued an edict on September 3, 1882. In it he stated:
For some time the government has given its attention to the Jews and to their relations to the rest of the inhabitants of the empire, with a view of ascertaining the sad condition of the Christian inhabitants brought about by the conduct of Jews in business matters.... With few exceptions, they have as a body devoted their attention, not to enriching or benefiting the country, but to defrauding by their wiles its inhabitants, and particularly its poor inhabitants. This conduct of theirs has called forth protests on the part of the people,… thought it a matter of urgency and justice to adopt stringent measures in order to put an end to the oppression practiced by the Jews on the inhabitants, and to free the country from their malpractices, which were, as is known, the cause of the agitations.
(Latimer, E.W. (1895). Russia and Turkey in the 19th Century. A. C. McLury & Co. p. 332.)

So, Jews had ample reason to attempt to overturn the Czarist government of Russia, and there is direct evidence they did just that. The Jewish Communal Register of New York City of 1917-1918, edited and published by the Jewish community, profiles Jacob Schiff, who at that time was one of the wealthiest men in the world as head of the huge banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Company. In the article it states how the firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Company “floated the large Japanese War Loans of 1904-1905, thus making possible the Japanese victory over Russia.” It also goes on to say:
" Mr. Schiff has always used his wealth and his influence in the best interests of his people. He financed the enemies of autocratic Russia and used his financial influence to keep Russia away from the money market of the UnitedStates. "
(Jewish Communal Register of New York City. (1918). p.1018-1019)

Jacob Schiff actually gave somewhere between $17 million and $24 million to finance the Jewish-Communist revolutionaries in Russia, a sum that would be the equivalent of many hundreds of millions of dollars by today's dollar value. Rabbi Marvin S. Andelman, in his book To Eliminate the Opiate, cites two sources documenting Schiff's financial support of the Communist revolution and ultimate repayment by them:
" Jacob Schiff is credited with giving twenty million dollars to the Bolshevik revolution. A year after his death the Bolsheviks deposited over six hundred million rubles to Schiff's banking firm Kuhn & Loeb. "
(New York Journal American (1949). February 3.)
(Andelman, M.S. (1974). To Eliminate the Opiate .)

A Jewish banker Max Warburg was also financing the Jewish bolsheviks:
Warburg is cited as one of the three Jewish bankers Rubenstein, Max Warburg, and Parvus, who maneuvered with the Russian revolutionaries, Zenzinov and Lunacharski. Ambassador Francis noted that “Parvus and Warburg both figure in the Lenin and Trotsky documents.”

Lenin too was a Jew

Although the fact of Lenin’s Jewish ancestry was kept quiet for many years, Jewish writers are now taking note of it. David Shub, author of Lenin: A Biography, stated in a letter to the Russian émigré paper Novyi Zhurnal that Lenin's mother was Jewish at least on her father's side and probably so on her mother's side as well.
(Shub, David. (1961). Novyi Zhurnal no. 63;
53 Shub, D. (1966). Lenin: a Biography. Harmondsworth, Penguin.)

In addition, a French Jewish periodical, Review de Fonds Social Juif, reported that a Soviet novelist, Marietta Shaguinian, was prevented by Soviet censorship from publishing evidence of Lenin's Jewish ancestry.
(Review de Fonds Social Juif. (1970). no. 161.)

A number of Jewish publications in recent years have disclosed Lenin’s Jewish heritage, including the Jewish Chronicle.
(Ben-Shlomo, B. Z. (1991). Reporting on Lenin’s Jewish Roots. Jewish Chronicle. July 26. p.2.)

Jews in the NKVD

Table 2: Proportion of Jews in the upper echelons of the NKVD[46][47]
Nationality...Jul. 10, 34__Oct 1, 36__Mar. 1, 37__Sept. 1, 38__Jul. 1, 39__Jan. 1, 40__Feb. 26, 41


[46] Nikita Petrov, “Veränderungstendenzen im Kaderbestand der Organe der sowjetischen Staatssicherheit in der Stalin-Zeit,” Forum für osteuropäische Ideen- und Zeitgeschichte, 5(2) (2001) (
[47] Cf. primarily the Jewish author Sonja Margolina, Das Ende der Lügen, Siedler, Berlin 1992; also, much more scientific: Johannes Rogalla von Bieberstein, Jüdischer Bolschewismup. Mythos und Realität, Edition Antaios, Dresden 2002; Alexander Solschenizyn, 200 Jahre zusammen, 2 vols., Herbig, Munich 2003; cf. Wolfgang Strauss, “The End of the Legends,” TR 2(3) (2004), pp. 342-351; historically interesting: Rudolf Kommos, Juden hinter Stalin: Die Vormachtstellung jüdischer Kader in der Sowjetunion auf der Grundlage amtlicher sowjetischer Quellen dargestellt, Nibelungen-Verl., Berlin/Leipzig 1938; reprint: Verlag für ganzheitliche Forschung und Kultur, Viöl, undated; see also Robert Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs, George H. Doran, New York 1920 (reprint: Institute for Historical Review, Newport Beach 1993; cf. Mark Weber, “The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia’s Early Soviet Regime,” JHR 14(1) (1994), pp. 4-14). Wilton was correspondent of the London Times at St. Petersburg during the Soviet revolution.
(Lectures on the Holocaust, p. 33-34.)

Antisemitism punishable by death

The Congress Bulletin (Publication of the American Jewish Congress)stated: 61 62 63
”Anti-Semitism was classed as counter-revolution and the severe punishments meted out for acts of Anti-Semitism were the means by which the existing order protected its own safety.”
(The Congress Bulletin. (1940).(New York). American Jewish Congress, January 5;
George Bernard Shaw, quoted in The Jewish Guardian ( 1931). said: "I have seen the statement which Stalin gave recently to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency on Anti-Semitism and in which the Soviet leader said that under the Soviet laws militant Anti-Semitism is punishable by death.";
Joseph Stalin (Note to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency). 12th January 1931, Collected Works, vol. 13.)

The Russian Penal Codes of 1922 and 1927 even went so far as to make Anti-Semitism punishable by death. The book Soviet Russia and the Jews by Gregor Aronson and published by the American Jewish League Against Communism (1949 NY) quotes Stalin remarking on the policy in an interview in 1931 with the Jewish Telegraph Agency:
”…Communists cannot be anything but outspoken enemies of Anti-Semitism. We fight anti-Semites by the strongest methods in the Soviet Union. Active Anti-Semites are punished by death under law.”
(Gregor Aronson. (1949). Soviet Russia and the Jews. New York: American Jewish League Against Communism.)

"There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolshevists. The ideals of Bolshevism are consonant with many of the highest ideals of Judaism."
(Jewish Chronicle, London April, 4, 1919)

Conclusion: The bolshevik revolution was a Jewish revolution, lead by the Jewish revolutionaries and funded by the Jewish bankers. About 80% of the leadership in the Soviet Russia in her early stages was Jewish

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