by Hank Mills Pure Energy Systems News You've heard it said, "If you snooze, you loose!"
This saying seems to be especially true for those following the saga of Andrea Rossi's E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer) technology and it's race towards commercialization. It seems like every morning upon waking, there are new developments to catch up on! The news has came from interviews with those involved with the E-Cat, new statements from Defkalion Green Technologies, posts from Andrea Rossi on his blog, and other sources. For the casual person who does not have several hours a day to monitor the internet, the flood of news could be overwhelming. To assist those who have not had the time to keep up, we will try to cover the most significant turn of events in this article.
One very significant development was Defkalion Green Technologies opening a forum on their website. The forum quickly filled with users asking many questions; and Defkalion's moderators (a team of individuals with different roles in the company) provided many answers. However, several skeptical naysayers also jointed the forum, and their negativity was obviously part of the reason why Defkalion decided to close the forum for the time being. All the content of the forum is still visible to the public, but no new threads or posts can be made.
The following are several bits of information provided by Defkalion in response to questions posted on their forum.
- The agenda of the 1 MW presentation will be announced through their website by mid-October.
- Defkalion has had units (which they call Hyperions) in continuous operation for months. When their testing is finished, the results will be published.
- Testing of Hyperion units by Greek government officials took place the first ten days of July. These tests were to determine the safety and performance of the units. The protocols used and the results of these tests should be published, "very soon."
- Defkalion has tested self sustaining systems. In these systems, once the device is brought up to the proper temperature, the input is cut off and heat continues to be produced.
- At this moment, the highest temperature of steam produced by a Hyperion is 414C. This is not because steam cannot be made hotter, but because higher temperatures can exceed the specifications of components. - They have never performed a test in which the output of a Hyperion was less than 19 times the input. Usually, it is in the range of 20 to 30 times the input.
- Although a one megawatt unit will be demonstrated in October, their highest power device will produce 3.45 megawatts of thermal energy and fit inside a 20 foot container.
- The lead shielding required to block gamma rays has been reduced to only 3 millimeters.
Additionally, Defkalion has uploaded the video of their June 23rd press conference to Youtube. The links to the videos along with the power point presentation can be found on the "news" portion of the website. A whitepaper that details their plans for the technology can be downloaded from here.
Rossi's Blog Comments
Andrea Rossi has continued to make many interesting comments on this blog, "The Journal of Nuclear Physics." Questions are continually posted on his blog, and they are answered on a daily basis. A few of the more interesting bits of information recently collected from his blog are as follows...
- He is making "remarkable" progress on self sustaining E-Cats that do not require a constant input. - The maximum safe output from an E-Cat with a reactor vessel only 50cc in volume is 10 kilowatts.
- He has finished constructing all the reactors for the first one megawatt plant. Now they are being tested with a complex protocol.
- The first application in the USA for the E-Cat will probably be "feedwater" heaters, that heat the water going into power plants. By pre-heating the water, less coal or fossil fuels would need to be burned.
Rossi has answered many questions on his blog about many different topics. Over the past several months, he has answered hundreds or thousands of questions. If you have a question, you should post it on his blog. However, please review the posts already made to determine if the question has already been asked!
EV World and E-Cat Report Interviews
Although Andrea Rossi frequently states that he is not going to do any additional interviews until the one megawatt plant is opened in October, more interviews continue to appear on the internet. One of these was an audio interview on the EV World podcast. In this interview, he shared some interesting information about how his system works, and even compared the pressure and temperatures to that of a White Dwarf star. A full transcription of the interview can be found here.
"Yes. To make it extremely simple, what happens is that nickel has a particularity that protons spread from its surface with extreme efficiency. And very close to the nucleus, even if repelled by the so called coulomb barrier forces. And when we in the reactor inject the hydrogen the protons of hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures, will go pretty close to the nucleus of the nickel. And at those points, we have nuclear effects that produce gamma rays which add more energy and using a particular system to increase the pressure arriving to extremely high pressures... similar to ones that happen to be in the White Dwarf stars. In those situations, it is possible that physically that so called Gamow Factor, which is a probabilistic calculation of the coulomb repelling forces, is overcome, and at that point enough energy is produced to make it worth to be recorded."
Andrea Rossi also gave an interview with a representative from the E-Cat Report website. Many interesting comments were made. The following comment was particularly interesting. Please realize the following comment was paraphrased by E-Cat Report.
"The management team of both Defkalion and AmpEnergo will meet on the 14th July (2011) together with NASA for an important discussion regarding the research and business development around the E-Cat. After the initial meeting with NASA, Defkalion GT and Ampenergo will sit down and develop a joint program for the introduction of the E-Cat as a main energy source to the world."
This is a very exciting development, because it means many scientists are starting to realize the E-Cat technology is real. However, due to NASA's (Never A Strait Answer) history of denying the reality of UFO encounters and obscuring other important topics (such as anomalies on Mars), their true motivation for wanting to be involved remains unknown. Dennis Bushnell who is the Chief NASA Scientist at the Langley Research Center has stated on a previous EV World podcast, that LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) technology could allow for the production of a nuclear rocket. However, why research a nuclear rocket when the military industrial complex has electrogravitic, and other exotic propulsion technologies? For example, the electrogravitic technology incorporated into the B2 Bomber!
(For those who are not aware, the B2 Bomber utilizes a positively charged leading edge and a negatively charged exhaust stream. The skin of the craft is a high capacity dielectric ceramic. When charged up, the entire B2 bomber is a giant capacitor. This creates an artificial gravitational field around the aircraft, which allows for greater speed and range.)
Clues About The Catalysts
In the E-Cat Report story, it was reported that Andrea Rossi gave some clues about the exact nature of the nickel powder used and the catalysts. The following is a segment from the E-Cat Report news story. (link)
Andrea Rossi on finding the right Nickel powder
Already from the beginning, Rossi looked at the powder form of the fuel because he wanted to increase the surface area of the Nickel so that more entrance points per volume unit for the hydrogen gas could occur.
Andrea Rossi stresses that, although one might first think "the finer the better" because the finer the powder the more surface area per volume you get, this is not the case; because in order to reach useful reaction rates with hydrogen, the powder needs to processed in a way that leads to amplified tubercles on the surface.
The tubercles are essential in order for the reaction rate to reach levels high enough for the implied total power output per volume or mass to reach orders of magnitude kW/kg - this level of power density is required for any useful application of the process.
Rossi tells that he worked every waking hour for six months straight, trying dozens of combinations to find the optimal powder size for the Energy Catalyzer, or E-Cat. He further stresses that specific data about the final optimal grain size cannot be revealed, but can tell us that the most efficient grain size is more in the micrometer range rather than the nanometer range.
Andrea Rossi on the secret catalyst
In most physics related forums on the internet, physicists are speculating at this point about what the function of the secret catalyst or "secret sauce" really is. An earlier popular speculation was that the "secret catalyst" was used to separate the Hydrogen molecules into Hydrogen atoms, which are then more easily absorbed by the Nickel lattice.
Today we are proud to be able to add a new piece of the puzzle to that discussion by questioning whether the substance is used to amplify the prominent tubercles on the surface of the grains. This speculation makes sense since we have been told that both surface area and surface texture has a big impact on the reaction frequency.
If the tubercles on the surface did not affect the reaction itself they would then only affect the loading time of the Hydrogen into the Nickel lattice and not the reaction rate inside the lattice. For all Ecatreport.com knows from what Rossi has told us, that doesn't seem to be the case and a qualified guess would be that the reaction is most intense at the surface of the powder.
Andrea Rossi is still working on several elements and substances to improve the catalysts for the Hydrogen-Nickel reaction, and he has been doing so for the past four, five years. The most effective catalyst found so far, was at one stage abandoned in the search for an even more effective one, but was later reinstated because, overall, it proved to be the most effective one.
It is interesting to hear that Rossi is sharing more information about the nickel powder and the catalysts. For a very long time he refused to discuss the catalysts at all, except to say they are not radioactive, cheap, and commonly available. Maybe more information about the catalysts will be revealed in the coming months.
Carbon as a Possible Catalyst
There has been a great deal of speculation on the internet about the identities of the catalysts. One good place to read such speculation is on the Vortex-L mailing list. Although there are many guesses, no one appears to really know without a doubt the identities of the catalysts. One possibility is that one of the catalysts is a form of carbon. Here is a post made on Vortex-L about carbon being a possible catalyst.
In your recent video posted to Youtube (in which you present the Hyperion technology to the world) the screen in the background has a partial chemical formula. The part that I could make sense of, was the empirical formula for "benzene." In the background were carbon rings of some benzene like molecule.
I found this quite interesting, because "officially" carbon and benzene has nothing to do with the E-Cat or Hyperion technology (unless you are suggesting that the technology is preventing carbon from being produced). Unofficially, there are a few theories floating around the net that some form of carbon may be utilized as a catalyst in the system. The carbon could potentially promote the creation of Rydburg matter in the form of hydrogen ion clusters. This cluster of hydrogen ions (Rossi has already stated that the ability to create atomic hydrogen and utilize it appropriately is key to make the device work) can then penetrate inside of the defects in the nickel powder. These clusters, acting like one large atom, could then interact with the nickel to produce fusion reactions. Here is the link to the full theory.
There are a few differences between his system and Rossi's. He used deuterium instead of ordinary hydrogen (Rossi claims that deuterium does not work), and used platinum instead of nickel enriched with N62 and N64. The platinum metal he used was also not in nano-sizes (as far as I know). The researcher actually speculated someone could use nickel or other metals.
Finally, there is another bit of info that might indicate carbon is involved somehow with the processes in the E-Cat. This is from Ed Storms who is a famous cold fusion researcher...
On Rossi's path to discovery: "Rossi hit upon this somewhat by accident. He was using a nickel catalyst to explore ways of making a fuel b combining hydrogen and carbon monoxide and apparently, observed quite by accident, that his [apparatus] was making extra energy. So then he explored it from that point of view and, apparently, over a year or two, amplified the effect."
Oh, one more thing.... mainstream scientists have found a use for carbon as a catalyst in fuel cells. The following link explains the discovery.
1) What is the significance of putting the empirical formula for benzene (CH) and carbon-benzene rings on the first slide of your presentation?
2) Did you put the formula and carbon-benzene rings on the slide for no reason at all (randomly) or does it have some meaning?
3) Does carbon or benzene (in any form) have anything to do with the Hyperion or Energy Catalyzer? If so, what?
4) Was the formula and benzene rings a clue of some sort about the catalyst?
If the posting of the (CH) and benzene rings were random or meant something different I apologize for this post.
Please realize that there are many people in the alternative energy community that feel our civilization is not going to exist as we know it that much longer, without some sort of exotic new energy technology. I personally don't think the world has another twenty years left, without an extreme energy breakthrough. Many of us are convinced your technology works and have intense curiosity about the processes involved. To be blunt, it could be the technology that buys humanity enough time to get it's act together, so we do not destroy ourselves or the planet.
Thank you for any information you can provide.
Defkalion responded with the following.
We used this presentation template, that you can download from Microsoft template site, because of the colors. The chemical formula in the background has nothing to do with our technology. We use benzene (βενζίνη)-gaz or gasoline (or what ever you call it) only to run our company cars.
In the past several weeks or months, many new E-Cat related websites have emerged. It seems like countless people are eager to report on the technology. Of course the mainstream media still refuses to report on the E-Cat, but eventually a critical mass will be reached, and they will be forced to report on the Energy Catalyzer technology. At that time we need to remind them and let everyone know that the alternative media reported about it first, while they were too chicken and cowardly to speak up!
Here are a few of the new websites that are reporting information about the E-Cat technology.
When the dumbstream media starts reporting about the E-Cat technology, the amount of coverage will increase dramatically. If we think it's difficult to keep up with all the news now, just wait until the mainstream media starts reporting on it. Also, once the catalyst leaks out, there will be a slew of replication attempts, and competitors building products. By the end of this year, we could be in the middle of a cold fusion revolution!
As always, PESN will bring you news and coverage of important E-Cat related events.